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Virginia Administrative Code

Database updated through July 1, 2010

9VAC25-280-10. Definitions.

The following words and terms when used in this chapter shall have the following meanings unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

"Board" means State Water Control Board.

"Criteria" means elements of the board's ground water quality standards, expressed as constituent concentrations, levels, or narrative statements, representing a quality of water that supports a particular use. When criteria are met, ground water quality will generally protect the designated use.

"Ground water quality standards" means provisions of state law that consist of a designated use or uses for the waters of the Commonwealth and water quality criteria for such waters based upon such uses. Ground water quality standards are to protect the public health or welfare, enhance the quality of water and serve the purposes of the State Water Control Law (� 62.1-44.2 et seq. of the Code of Virginia).

Statutory Authority

� 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 20, Issue 9, eff. February 12, 2004.

9VAC25-280-20. Ground water standards; general requirements.

Except where otherwise specified, ground water quality standards shall apply statewide and shall apply to all ground water occurring at and below the uppermost seasonal limits of the water table. In order to prevent the entry of pollutants into ground water occurring in any aquifer, a soil zone or alternate protective measure or device sufficient to preserve and protect present and anticipated uses of ground water shall be maintained at all times. Zones for mixing wastes with ground water may be allowed, upon request, but shall be determined on a case-by-case basis and shall be kept as small as possible. It is recognized that natural ground water quality varies from area to area. Virginia is divided into four physiographic provinces, namely the Coastal Plain, Piedmont and Blue Ridge, Valley and Ridge, and Cumberland Plateau. See Figure 1. Accordingly, the board has established certain ground water standards specific to each individual physiographic province.

Statutory Authority

� 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 20, Issue 9, eff. February 12, 2004.

9VAC25-280-30. Antidegradation policy for ground water.

If the concentration of any constituent in ground water is less than the limit set forth by ground water standards, the natural quality for the constituent shall be maintained; natural quality shall also be maintained for all constituents, including temperature, not set forth in ground water standards. If the concentration of any constituent in ground water exceeds the limit in the standard for that constituent, no addition of that constituent to the naturally occurring concentration shall be made. Variance to this policy shall not be made unless it has been affirmatively demonstrated that a change is justifiable to provide necessary economic or social development, that the degree of waste treatment necessary to preserve the existing quality cannot be economically or socially justified, and that the present and anticipated uses of such water will be preserved and protected.

Statutory Authority

� 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 20, Issue 9, eff. February 12, 2004.

9VAC25-280-40. Ground water standards applicable statewide.

CONSTITUENT

CONCENTRATION

Sodium

270 mg/l

Foaming Agents as methylene blue active substances

0.05 mg/l

Petroleum hydrocarbons

1 mg/l

Arsenic

0.05 mg/l

Barium

1.0 mg/l

Cadmium

0.0004 mg/l

Chromium

0.05 mg/l

Copper

1.0 mg/l

Cyanide

0.005 mg/l

Lead

0.05 mg/l

Mercury

0.00005 mg/l

Phenols

0.001 mg/l

Selenium

0.01 mg/l

Silver

None

Zinc

0.05 mg/l

Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Insecticides

 

 

Aldrin/Dieldrin

0.003 μg/l

 

Chlordane

0.01 μg/l

 

DDT

0.001 μg/l

 

Endrin

0.004 μg/l

 

Heptachlor

0.001 μg/l

 

Heptachlor Epoxide

0.001 μg/l

 

Kepone

None

 

Lindane

0.01 μg/l

 

Methoxychlor

0.03 μg/l

 

Mirex

None

 

Toxaphene

None

Chlorophenoxy Herbicides

 

 

2,4‑D

0.1 mg/l

 

Silvex

0.01 mg/l

Radioactivity

 

 

Total Radium (Ra‑226 & Ra‑228)

5 pCi/1

 

Radium 226

3 pCi/1

 

Gross Beta Activity*

50 pCi/1

Gross Alpha Activity (excluding Radon & Uranium)

15 pCi/1

Tritium

20,000 pCi/l

Strontium‑90

8 pCi/l

Manmade Radioactivity ‑ Total Dose Equiv.**

4 mrem/yr

pCi/l = picoCurie per liter

mrem/yr = millirems per year

*The gross beta value shall be used as a screening value only. If exceeded, the water must be analyzed to determine the presence and quantity of radionuclides to determine compliance with the tritium, strontium, and manmade radioactivity standards.

**Combination of all sources should not exceed total dose equivalent of 4 mrem/year.

Statutory Authority

� 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 20, Issue 9, eff. February 12, 2004.

9VAC25-280-50. Ground water standards applicable by physiographic province.

CONSTITUENT

CONCENTRATION

Coastal Plain

Piedmont & Blue Ridge

Valley & Ridge

Cumberland Plateau

pH

6.5-9

5.5-8.5

6-9

5-8.5

Ammonia Nitrogen

0.025 mg/l

0.025 mg/l

0.025 mg/l

0.025 mg/l

Nitrite Nitrogen

0.025 mg/l

0.025 mg/l

0.025 mg/l

0.025 mg/l

Nitrate Nitrogen

5 mg/l

5 mg/l

5 mg/l

0.5 mg/l

Statutory Authority

� 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 20, Issue 9, eff. February 12, 2004.

9VAC25-280-60. Ground water criteria; general requirements.

These ground water quality criteria apply primarily to ground water constituents that occur naturally. Since natural ground water quality can vary greatly from area to area for these constituents, enforceable standards were not adopted. These criteria are intended to provide guidance in preventing ground water pollution. Ground water criteria are not mandatory.

Statutory Authority

� 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 20, Issue 9, eff. February 12, 2004.

9VAC25-280-70. Ground water criteria.

CONSTITUENT (mg/l)

GROUND WATER CRITERIA BY PHYSIOGRAPHIC PROVINCE***

Coastal Plain

Piedmont & Blue Ridge

Valley & Ridge

Cumberland Plateau

Alkalinity

30-500

10-200

30-500

30‑200

Total Diss. Solids

1000

250

500

500

Chloride

50*

25

25

25

Sulfate

50

25

100

150

Total Organic Carbon

10

10

10

10

Color units

15

15

15

15

Iron

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.01-10

Manganese

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.01-0.5

Sodium

100*

25

25

100

Fluoride

1.4**

1.4

1.4

1.4

Hardness

120

120

300

180

*It is recognized that naturally occurring concentrations will exceed this limit in the eastern part of the Coastal Plain, especially toward the shoreline and with increased depth.

**Except within the cretaceous aquifer: concentration up to 5 mg/l and higher.

***See Figure 1 for delineation of physiographic provinces.

Figure 1

Statutory Authority

� 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 20, Issue 9, eff. February 12, 2004.

9VAC25-280-80. Modification, amendment, and cancellation of standards.

A. Under the authority of � 62.1-44.15(3)(b) of the State Water Control Law, the board reserves the right at any time to modify, amend, or cancel any of the rules, policies, or standards set forth here.

B. Within three years after the effective date of this chapter, the department shall perform an analysis on this chapter and provide the board with a report on the results. The analysis shall include (i) the purpose and need for the chapter; (ii) alternatives that would achieve the stated purpose of this chapter in a less burdensome and less intrusive manner; (iii) an assessment of the effectiveness of this chapter; (iv) the results of a review of current state and federal statutory and regulatory requirements, including identification and justification of requirements of this chapter that are more stringent than federal requirements; and (v) the results of a review as to whether this chapter is clearly written and easily understandable by affected entities.

Upon review of the department's analysis, the board shall confirm the need to (i) continue this chapter without amendment; (ii) repeal this chapter; or (iii) amend this chapter. If the board's decision is to repeal or amend this chapter, the board shall authorize the department to initiate the applicable regulatory process to carry out the decision of the board.

Statutory Authority

� 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 20, Issue 9, eff. February 12, 2004.

9VAC25-280-90. Designations of authority.

The director or his designee may perform any