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Vaccination Information for Infection Preventionists

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Vaccination is a key infection prevention tool for healthcare workers as well as patients entering healthcare facilities. Patients may be at greater risk for serious infections and complications from vaccine-preventable diseases due to age, weakened immune systems, or underlying health conditions. It is important to encourage staff members, patients, visitors, and family members to get vaccinated to protect themselves from disease and help prevent the spread of disease within healthcare facilities as well as in the community.

For detailed information on vaccinations in healthcare settings, please visit the Division of Immunization’s healthcare webpage.

Best Practices for Healthcare Settings

Care providers in healthcare facilities may be at risk for exposure to and transmission of vaccine-preventable diseases.  Maintenance of immunity is an essential part of prevention.
Suggested strategies include:

  • Learn about the different vaccines recommended for care providers in your setting
  • Maintain your own individual vaccination record
  • Help your facility keep accurate and up-to-date patient and employee vaccination records
  • Familiarize yourself with the child/adolescent and adult vaccination schedule recommendations (revised annually) and procedures for administration
  • Get involved with influenza vaccination campaigns each year to encourage coworkers to protect themselves and their patients


  • Federal regulations (Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s Bloodborne Pathogen Standard 1910.1030) and state regulations (16VAC25-90-1910) require that employers comply with the OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Standard. One of the requirements of this standard is that employees who have occupational exposure to blood or other infectious materials be offered the hepatitis B vaccination series by the employer at no cost unless the employee has previously received the complete series, antibody testing has revealed that the employee is immune, or the vaccine is contraindicated (not recommended) for medical reasons. The vaccination series must be provided in accordance with the recommendations of the U.S. Public Health Service current at the time of the vaccination. This includes follow-up testing one to two months after the completion of the three-dose vaccination series to test for antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen.
  • State regulations (12 VAC5-371-110) require nursing homes to provide or arrange for the administration of a pneumococcal vaccination and an annual influenza vaccination according to the most recent recommendations unless the vaccination is contraindicated or the resident declines the vaccination offer.

Surveillance of Healthcare Worker Influenza Vaccination Rates

As conditions of participation in their quality reporting programs, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) requires several types of healthcare facilities to report summary-level healthcare personnel (HCP) influenza vaccination rates to the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN). These healthcare settings include:

  • Acute care hospitals (inpatient and outpatient)
  • Long-term acute care hospitals
  • Inpatient rehabilitation facilities
  • Ambulatory surgery centers
  • Outpatient hemodialysis facilities

The NHSN’s Healthcare Personnel Influenza Vaccination Module enables healthcare facilities to record HCP influenza vaccination summary-level data so that HCP influenza vaccination percentages are consistent over time within a single healthcare facility and comparable across facilities and can be used by various types of healthcare facilities. The protocol and instructions, forms, and FAQs for this module can be found here by clicking on the appropriate healthcare setting and selecting the link in the box for healthcare personnel influenza vaccination.

In September 2015, the VDH healthcare-associated infection reporting regulations were updated to align state reporting requirements with the CMS Hospital Inpatient Quality Reporting Program. Under the new regulations, hospitals are reporting healthcare personnel influenza vaccination data to VDH through NHSN for all inpatient healthcare personnel. For more information on these data and the state regulation mandating their reporting, please see the Public Reporting page.

More information on influenza vaccination can be found on the VDH flu vaccination page.

Vaccine Recommendations


Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) – a group of experts in fields associated with immunization that provides advice and guidance to governmental agencies on the control of vaccine-preventable diseases. This group develops written recommendations for the routine administration of vaccines to children and adults, including age for vaccine administration, number of doses and dosing interval (how long between doses), and precautions and contraindications.

Bolyard EA, Tablan OC, Williams WW, Pearson ML, Shapiro CN, Deitchman SD, and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC).  Guideline for Infection Control in Healthcare Personnel, 1998.

Immunization Action Coalition – a non-profit organization that works to increase immunization rates and prevent disease by creating and distributing educational materials for health professionals and the public.

Vaccination FAQ (for assisted living facilities and nursing homes)

Vaccination FAQ (for other healthcare settings)

For detailed information regarding recommended vaccinations, vaccination coverage data, vaccination procedures, or other information, please visit the Virginia Department of Health’s Division of Immunization at or call the Division at 1-800-568-1929.

Last Updated: 10-21-2015

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