Diabetes is a group of diseases in which sugar levels in the bloodstream are above normal. It occurs when a person cannot produce (type 1) or properly use (type 2) insulin. Insulin is a hormone that moves the sugar out of the bloodstream into the cells to be used for energy.
o Condition where sugar levels are higher than normal but are not high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes.
o Increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes and for heart disease and stroke.
o Also known as "(IGT) impaired glucose tolerance" or "(IFG) impaired fasting glucose".
o Eating healthy food and being physically active lowers the risk of developing diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes:
o Appears suddenly in people, usually before age 20.
o High sugar levels caused by a total lack of insulin.
o Accounts for 5 to 10 percent of diabetes cases.
o Previously known as "juvenile-onset diabetes" or insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM).
o Is treated with daily insulin injections or use of an insulin pump.
Type 2 diabetes
o Condition in which the pancreas makes some insulin but the insulin is not used effectively.
o Usually develops gradually, mainly in adults but is increasing in children.
o Accounts for 90 to 95 percent of all diabetes cases.
o Previously known as "adult onset diabetes" or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM).
o Is controllable by diet, exercise, and daily monitoring of glucose levels. Sometimes treated with diabetes pills and/or insulin injections.
o Occurs in the second half of a women's pregnancy.
o Appears in up to 5 percent of pregnancies and usually disappears when the pregnancy is over.
o Requires treatment to avoid complications in the baby.
o Poses an increased risk of later developing type 2 diabetes.
To learn more about your risk for developing diabetes and controlling your diabetes, click on the links below.