Prevention Tips

On this page: 

How COVID-19 spreads
COVID-19 vaccine
Physical distancing
Hand washing
Covering coughs and sneezes
Cleaning and disinfecting surfaces
Cleaning product safety
COVID-19 symptoms 
Avoid contact with people who are sick
Prepare your home and family
Be prepared when you go out
Additional information


Help Stop the Spread of COVID-19 

There is no single step or strategy that can stop the spread of COVID-19. Instead, we need to follow multiple strategies--all at the same time--to stop the spread. 

Help Stop the Spread of COVID-19 

There is no single step or strategy that can stop the spread of COVID-19. Instead, we need to follow multiple strategies--all at the same time--to stop the spread.

Understand how COVID-19 spreads.

  • The virus that causes COVID-19 spreads very easily between people who are in close contact with one another. The longer you spend with someone, the greater this risk for spreading the virus.
  • COVID-19 can be spread by people who don’t feel sick or have any symptoms.
  • The virus spreads mainly from person-to-person through respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs, sneezes, sings, or talks. These droplets can land in the mouths or noses of people who are nearby or inhaled into the lungs. In some cases, they may contaminate surfaces they touch, but this is uncommon.
  • Sometimes, COVID-19 can spread through smaller respiratory droplets and particles that contain the virus and hang in the air. These smaller droplets can remain in the air for minutes to hours. The virus may infect others who are more than six feet away from an infected person, or after the infected person has left the space. This is called airborne transmission. Airborne transmission seems more likely to occur in spaces with poor air flow. It can also happen when the infected person is breathing hard, like when exercising or singing. It is also uncommon for COVID-19 to spread through contact with contaminated surfaces. This means that you are unlikely to get COVID-19 by touching your eyes, nose, or mouth after you have touched a contaminated item.
  • COVID-19 can spread from people to animals in some situations, but this is uncommon. Pet cats and dogs can also sometimes become infected after close contact with people with COVID-19.

Get vaccinated

  • Getting vaccinated reduces your risk of getting infected with COVID-19. It prevents you from becoming really ill, needing to be hospitalized, or dying from COVID-19. It protects people around you who cannot get vaccinated and helps reduce the spread of COVID-19 in your community. 
  • Anyone aged 5 years and older can get vaccinated for COVID-19. Visit to find a vaccine. 
  • There are currently three vaccines available in the U.S. These are made by ​​Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, and Johnson & Johnson (Janssen).
  • All three vaccines are available and are safe and effective.
    • A two-dose series is recommended for the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines.
    • One dose is recommended for the Johnson & Johnson (Janssen) vaccine.

Fully vaccinated people:

  • People who are fully vaccinated can take part in many activities that you did before the pandemic. 
  • Wear a mask indoors in public if you are in an area of substantial or high transmission (shown in orange or red in the map). This is to help protect you from the Delta variant and prevent the spread of COVID-19 to others.
  • You must wear a mask where required by federal, state, local, tribal, or territorial laws, rules, and regulations. This includes local business and workplace guidance.

Fully vaccinated means 2 weeks or more have passed after your second dose of a two-dose vaccine or your 1 dose of a single-dose vaccine. 

If you have a condition or are taking medications that weaken your immune system, you may NOT be fully protected even if you are fully vaccinated. Talk to your healthcare provider. You should continue taking all precautions until your healthcare provider says you no longer need to do so. If you have a moderately or severely weakened immune system, CDC recommends that you should receive an additional dose of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (Pfizer or Moderna) at least 28 days after your second dose of Pfizer or Moderna vaccine. This is to improve your initial response to the vaccine.

Booster doses:

  • CDC recommends that anyone 18 years and older who has completed their COVID-19 vaccine primary series is eligible for a booster dose. 

If you received Pfizer or Moderna vaccine, 

  • You should get a booster dose if you are:
    • 18 years or older
    • When to get a booster:
      • At least 6 months after your second shot

If you received Johnson & Johnson Janssen (J&J) vaccine, 

  • You should get a booster dose if you are: 
    • 18 years or older
    • When to get a booster: 
      • At least 2 months after your shot 

Some people who are eligible for a booster dose may prefer the vaccine type that they first received. Others may prefer to get a different booster. You may choose which vaccine you receive as a booster dose, if you are eligible for one. 

For more information, see the VDH COVID-19 Vaccine website.

Practice physical distancing, especially if you are not fully vaccinated.

  • It is important to keep at least six feet between yourself and others. Limit close contact with others you do not live with, in both indoor and outdoor spaces. 
  • Do not gather in groups if you are not fully vaccinated. Stay out of crowded places and avoid mass gatherings and poorly ventilated spaces. You should wear a mask (even if you are fully vaccinated) and keep at least six feet apart from people if you are in a crowded place or at a large gathering. 
  • If you are exercising, cheering, shouting or singing, which makes us breathe more heavily, you may want to stay even farther apart (e.g.,10 feet).
  • Think about the risks before you go out.
    • The more time you spend with people you don’t live with, and the closer you are to them, the higher the risk of COVID-19 being spread. You increase your chances of getting COVD-19 or giving it to someone else. People with COVID-19 don’t always feel sick or have symptoms.
    • If you, or someone you live with, is at higher risk for COVID-19, you should be extra careful or not go out unless you really need to.
    • The outdoors is safer than indoors. This is because it is easier to stay at least six feet apart and there is more air flow (fresh air) when outside. 
    • Make sure that you understand your workplace’s sick leave and teleworking policies. People with COVID-19 will need to stay home (isolate) until they are no longer contagious.

For more information, see Practicing Physical Distancing During COVID-19.

Wear a mask, even if you are fully vaccinated.

  • If you are not fully vaccinated, you should wear a mask in indoor public settings and crowded outdoor settings.
  • If you are fully vaccinated, you should wear a mask in public indoor settings in areas of substantial or high transmission. This is shown in orange or red on the map. If you have a weakened immune system, you should continue to wear a mask even after vaccination until your  doctor tells you differently. 
  • Make sure that your mask fits and be sure to wear your mask properly. A mask should completely cover both the nose and mouth. It should fit snugly but comfortably against the sides of your face, should consist of two or more layers of fabric, and allow you to breathe easily.
  • Masks should not be placed on children under 2 years of age, anyone who has trouble breathing, or is unable to remove their mask without help. 

For more information, see Using Masks to Slow the Spread of COVID-19.

Wash your hands often to stop the spread of germs.

  • Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds. If soap and water are not available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol.
  • Clean your hands after going to the bathroom; before eating; after coughing, sneezing or blowing your nose; and after removing your mask.
  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose, or mouth with unwashed hands.

Cover your coughs and sneezes. 

  • Keep tissues with you. Put them in the trash right away after you use them and then wash or sanitize your hands. If you don’t have a tissue, cough or sneeze into your elbow, not your hand.

Clean and disinfect high-touch surfaces. 

  • Clean the items and surfaces you touch often. These include phones, keyboards, toilets, faucets, sinks, tables, countertops, light switches, doorknobs, and cabinet handles, with soap or detergent. 
  • Disinfect your home when someone is sick or if someone who is positive for COVID-19 has been in your home within the last 24 hours.
    • Most common EPA-registered household disinfectants will work. Use disinfectants appropriate for the surface.
    • Other options are to use diluted household bleach solutions, if appropriate for the surface, by mixing 5 tablespoons (1/3rd cup) bleach per gallon of water, or simply use soap and water or an alcohol solution with at least 60% alcohol. 
    • Always follow manufacturer’s instructions for application and proper ventilation.
    • Never mix household bleach with ammonia or any other cleanser.

Use cleaning products safely.

  • Do not use household cleaners or disinfectants on bare skin. Do not drink or inhale (breathe in) these cleaners or spray them on your skin. The chemicals can cause injuries or poison you. They will NOT work inside your body to kill the COVID-19 virus. Soap and water are all you need to safely clean your skin. 
  • Do not wash food with bleach or other cleaners or chemicals; this could burn your mouth, throat, or stomach. COVID-19 is not spread by eating food.
  • Read product labels and follow the instructions. Do not mix different kinds of cleaners together. Follow any instructions for wearing gloves and eye protection, such as goggles.
  • Click here for a list of Virginia Poison Control Centers.

For more information, see Cleaning and Disinfecting Your Home.

Know the symptoms of COVID-19.

  • People with COVID-19 usually have mild to severe respiratory illness. These symptoms may appear 2-14 days after exposure to the virus:

    • Fever
    • Cough
    • Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
    • Chills
    • Muscle or body aches
    • Sore throat
    • New loss of taste or smell
    • Fatigue (feeling very tired)
    • Stuffy or runny nose
    • Nausea or vomiting
    • Diarrhea
    • Headache

Not everyone with COVID-19 will have all symptoms and fever might not be present. If you don’t feel well, it is important that you quickly isolate yourself from others to avoid spreading the virus. Even those with mild illness might be able to spread COVID-19. Talk to a healthcare provider about getting tested for COVID-19. 

If your illness gets worse, or if you develop emergency warning signs for COVID-19, get medical care right away. Emergency warning signs may include: trouble breathing, pain or pressure in the chest that doesn’t go away, new confusion or inability to arouse (wake up or be alert), or pale, gray or blue-colored skin, lips or nail beds, depending on skin tone.

If you have a medical emergency, call 9-1-1. Tell the operator that you have or might have COVID-19. If possible, put on a mask before medical help arrives.

For more information, see What to Do if You Are Sick.

Avoid contact with people who are sick.

  • If you are caring for someone who is sick, have that person stay in one room, away from other people and pets, as much as possible. Avoid using the same bathroom as the person who is sick, if you can. Try to keep at least 6 feet of distance between the sick person and other members of the household, if possible, and wear a mask if you need to be in the same room.

For more information, see Exposure to COVID-19.

Prepare your home and family for COVID-19.

  • Create a household plan of action with your household members, relatives, and friends. Make plans to be able to work from home if you can, discuss what to do about childcare needs, and make plans for pet care should you get sick.
  • Create an emergency contact list and identify aid organizations in your community.
  • Plan ways to care for people in your life that are at a higher risk of getting very sick, such as older adults and people who have serious chronic medical conditions.
  • If you or a household member has a chronic condition and regularly takes prescription drugs, talk to your doctor, pharmacist, and insurance provider about keeping an emergency supply of medications at home. 
  • Choose a room in your home that can be used to separate sick household members from those who are healthy. Identify a separate bathroom for the sick person to use, if possible.
  • Talk with your family about COVID-19. Fear and anxiety about a disease are overwhelming and cause strong emotions in both children and adults. Learn more about things you can do to support yourself and your family on VDH’s Coping with Stress page.

For more information, see Daily Life and Coping.

Be prepared when you go out.

  • Check the map to find out if cases are going up in your community.
  • Bring a mask when you leave your home and follow the guidance for wearing a mask. 
  • If you won’t be able to wash your hands, bring hand sanitizer with you. 
  • Pack some tissues to cover your coughs and sneezes. 
  • Follow any signs for one-way traffic down store aisles, stay behind any shields or barriers, and look for markings on the floor to show you where to stand to stay at least 6 feet apart from others in line.
  • Make sure the businesses you are visiting are disinfecting and sanitizing surfaces and follow any business requirements for wearing a mask.  
  • As soon as you get home, wash your hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds.

Get more tips for staying safe when using public transportation and ride sharing services, traveling, and when visiting banks, libraries, gyms, restaurants, salons and other businesses on CDC’s Activities, Gatherings & Holidays page.

For more information:

Updated December 2, 2021