COVID-19 Outpatient Monoclonal Antibody Therapy Resource Center

On December 27, 2021, CDC updated and shortened the isolation and quarantine period for the general population. We appreciate your patience as we update VDH websites and documents to reflect these changes.

COVID-19 Outpatient Monoclonal Antibody Therapy Resource Center

Hot Topics

The distribution, authorization, and use of monoclonal antibodies in the United States is dynamic and changing rapidly. Recent updates will be posted here.

US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) 

Allocation of Monoclonal Antibodies

HHS posts the number of doses of monoclonal antibodies distributed to states and territories. To see the most recent allocation, please go to the following link and click on “View Full Chart” under Distribution by State and Territory:

State/Territory-Coordinated Distribution of COVID-19 Monoclonal Antibody Therapeutics 

Overview of Monoclonal Antibodies

What are monoclonal antibodies?

Monoclonal antibodies are a type of COVID-19 therapeutic agent for the treatment of COVID-19. These agents are often created by identifying pathogen-specific antibodies from patients who have recently recovered from an infection or by immunizing mice genetically modified to have a humanized immune system and harvesting effective antibodies from them. They are directed against a specific target on a pathogen and can restore, enhance or mimic the natural immune system’s actions against that pathogen.  Monoclonal antibodies that can bind to and ‘neutralize’ the virus in infected patients can be used as passive immunotherapy to minimize virulence. For COVID-19, currently authorized monoclonal antibodies intended for use in outpatient populations target the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, which the virus utilizes to enter host cells.

Currently, four monoclonal antibodies have FDA emergency use authorization (EUA) for outpatient use (please see the table below for more information):

A single monoclonal antibody (Tocilizumab, brand name Actemra, Genentech) is available for use for hospitalized patients with COVID-19.

A general review of monoclonal antibodies for providers can be found here and a review of anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies can be found here.  

A quick reference patient’s guide to monoclonal antibodies can be found here.

What are monoclonal antibodies used for?

In the outpatient setting, monoclonal antibodies currently have FDA emergency use authorization for three indications:

  • Treatment of non-hospitalized patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 at high-risk for progression to severe disease. Monoclonal antibodies with this indication include Bam/Ete (bamlanivimab and etesevimab), REGEN-COV (casirivimab and imdevimab), and sotrovimab.
  • Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) against COVID-19 in high-risk patients. Monoclonal antibodies with this indication are Bam/Ete and REGEN-COV.
  • Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against COVID-19 in high-risk patients who meet the EUA criteria for EVUSHELD (tixagevimab and cilgavimab).

Initial data shows that monoclonal antibody treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 reduces the risk of hospitalization and death in high-risk patients. Medication administration is recommended as soon as possible after a positive SARS-CoV-2 viral test, and must be given within 10 days of symptom onset. Patients who are hospitalized because of COVID-19 should not receive anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies, except in clinical trials.     

Which monoclonal antibodies currently have Emergency Use Authorizations for outpatient use?

Monoclonal Antibody  Use(s) Indication, Dose, and Route of Administration
Casirivimab/

Imdevimab

(REGEN-COV)(Regeneron)

Treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 in non-hospitalized patients

Note:  As of late December 2021, REGEN-COV is not felt to be active against the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant. Product EUA package insert updated on 12/22/2021.

Indication: Recommended for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients (aged 12 years or older and weighing at least 40 kg) with a positive SARS-CoV-2 viral test result and mild to moderate COVID-19 who are at high risk for progressing to severe disease and/or hospitalization as defined by the EUA criteria.* Patients must be observed for at least one hour post dosing. See package insert for complete information about EUA criteria, dosing, and administration.

REGEN-COV package insert (updated 12/22/2021)

Dose/Routes of Administration:

-Casirivimab 600 mg plus imdevimab 600 mg administered by intravenous (IV) infusion

-Casirivimab 600 mg plus imdevimab 600 mg administered by four subcutaneous (SC) injections (2.5 mL per injection)

Post-exposure prophylaxis Indication: Recommended as post-exposure prophylaxis (prevention) for COVID-19 in adults and pediatric patients (12 years of age and older weighing at least 40 kilograms) who are at high risk for progression to severe COVID-19, including hospitalization or death. Casirivimab plus imdevimab is not authorized for pre-exposure prophylaxis. Casirivimab plus imdevimab should only be used as post-exposure prophylaxis for specific patient populations as soon as possible. Casirivimab plus imdevimab is not indicated as a substitute for COVID-19 vaccination. Patients must be observed for at least one hour post dosing. See package insert for complete information about EUA criteria, dosing, and administration.

REGEN-COV package insert (updated 12/22/2021)

Dose/Routes of Administration:

-Casirivimab 600 mg plus imdevimab 600 mg administered by intravenous (IV) infusion

-Casirivimab 600 mg plus imdevimab 600 mg administered by four subcutaneous (SC) injections (2.5 mL per injection)

Bamlanivimab/

Etesevimab* (“Bam/Ete”) (Eli Lilly)

Treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 in non-hospitalized patients of any age

Note:  As of late December 2021, Bam/Ete is not felt to be active against the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant. Product EUA package insert updated on 12/22/2021.

Indication: Recommended for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients (pediatric patients of any age can receive Bam/Ete – see EUA package insert for pediatric dosing) with a positive SARS-CoV-2 viral test result and mild to moderate COVID-19 who are at high risk for progressing to severe disease and/or hospitalization as defined by the EUA criteria.* Patients must be observed for at least one hour post dosing. See package insert for complete information about EUA criteria, dosing, and administration.

Bam/Ete package insert (updated 12/22/2021)

Dose/Route of Administration:

Adults: Bamlanivimab 700 mg plus etesevimab 1,400 mg given by IV infusion

See EUA package insert above for pediatric dosing

Post-exposure prophylaxis in patients of any age Indication: Authorized for post-exposure prophylaxis in adults and children who are at high risk for progression to severe COVID-19, including hospitalization or death, and are: not fully vaccinated OR who are not expected to mount an adequate immune response to complete SARS-CoV-2 vaccination (for example, individuals with immunocompromising conditions including those taking immunosuppressive medications) AND

have been exposed to an individual infected with SARS-CoV-2 consistent with close contact criteria per Centers for Disease Control and Prevention OR

who are at high risk of exposure to an individual infected with SARS-CoV-2 because of occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in other individuals in the same institutional setting (for example, nursing homes, prisons, etc.). Medication should  be administered as soon as possible after exposure. Bamlanivimab plus etesevimab are not indicated as a substitute for COVID-19 vaccination.  Patients must be observed for at least one hour post dosing. See package insert for complete information about EUA criteria, dosing, and administration. EUA package insert provides information about dosing for young children.

Not authorized for use in states, territories, and US jurisdictions in which the combined frequency of variants resistant to bamlanivimab and etesevimab exceeds 5%.

Bam/Ete package insert (updated 12/13/2021)

Dose/Route of Administration:

Bamlanivimab 700 mg plus etesevimab 1,400 mg given by IV infusion

Sotrovimab (GlaxoSmithKline) Treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 in non-hospitalized patients

Note:  As of December 2021, sotrovimab is felt to retain activity against the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant. Product EUA package insert was updated on 12/22/2021.

Indication: Recommended for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients (aged 12 years or older and weighing at least 40 kg) with a positive SARS-CoV-2 viral test result and mild to moderate COVID-19 who are at high risk for progressing to severe disease and/or hospitalization as defined by the EUA criteria.*  Patients must be observed for at least one hour post dosing. See package insert for complete information about EUA criteria, dosing, and administration.

Sotrovimab package insert (updated 12/22/2021)

Dose/Route of Administration:

500 mg administered by IV infusion over 30 minutes

EVUSHELD (Tixagevimab co-packaged with Cilgavimab)

(AstraZeneca)

For emergency use as pre-exposure prophylaxis for prevention of COVID-19 in adults and pediatric individuals (12 years of age and older weighing at least 40 kg) who meet criteria detailed in the EUA package insert Indication: For emergency use as pre-exposure prophylaxis for prevention of COVID-19 in adults and pediatric individuals (12 years of age and older weighing at least 40 kg):

  • Who are not currently infected with SARS-CoV-2 and who have not had a known recent exposure to an individual infected with SARS-CoV-2 AND

 

Who have moderate to severe immune compromise due to a medical condition or receipt of immunosuppressive medications or treatments and may not mount an adequate immune response to COVID-19 vaccination OR

  • For whom vaccination with any available COVID-19 vaccine, according to the approved or authorized schedule, is not recommended due to a history of severe adverse reaction (e.g., severe allergic reaction) to a COVID-19 vaccine(s) and/or COVID-19 vaccine component(s).

Dose/Route of administration:

150 mg (1.5mL) of tixagevimab and 150 mg (1.5mL) of cilgavimab administered as two separate consecutive intramuscular injections (preferably one injection in each gluteus muscle). 

EVUSHELD EUA package insert (12/8/2021)

*Because clinical outcome data are limited and there are concerns regarding decreased susceptibility of variants, the NIH COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines Panel recommends against the use of bamlanivimab monotherapy. Further information can be accessed here: Statement on Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Monoclonal Antibodies.

Receiving and Administering Monoclonal Antibodies

Where can a person go to receive monoclonal antibody therapy?

Monoclonal antibody therapy is available at the following sites: 

 

The table below provides an overview of the locations that have received EVUSHELD; a pre-exposure prophylaxis (prevention) therapy. The table will grow as additional locations receive EVUSHELD and be updated as information is available. Patients should talk to their health care provider to determine whether, based on their individual circumstances, they are eligible to receive EVUSHELD.

 

EVUSHELD is a highly specialized product that may only be prescribed for an individual patient by physicians, advanced practice registered nurses, and physician assistants who are licensed or authorized under state law to prescribe drugs in the therapeutic class. EVUSHELD is not authorized for the following uses in individuals: treatment of COVID-19 or post-exposure prophylaxis of COVID-19 in individuals who have been exposed to someone infected with SARS-CoV-2.

How can providers sign up to order and administer monoclonal antibody therapy?

Medical providers in Virginia who wish to administer monoclonal antibodies must sign up with AmerisourceBergen (the medication distributor) and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Any site administering monoclonal antibodies must report their usage to HHS. Please note the links below which cover these topics. 

What should providers consider when providing monoclonal antibody therapy? 

As monoclonal antibodies are investigational therapies authorized for emergency use, data on adverse effects are limited. Serious adverse events, such as severe allergic reactions, have been reported with monoclonal antibody use, but are uncommon as of this time.  Other adverse effects may include nausea, diarrhea, and skin rashes.  Intravenous infusion-related reactions (such as fever, dyspnea, tachycardia, bradycardia, bronchospasm, and other symptoms/signs) have been reported with monoclonal antibody administration. It has also been reported that some patients had worsening of clinical symptoms and signs after administration of monoclonal antibodies.  It is not clear if this was related to the drug or the underlying COVID-19.   Patients receiving monoclonal antibody treatment must be observed for at least one hour after completing infusion. Monoclonal antibodies may only be administered in settings in which healthcare providers have immediate access to medications to treat a severe infusion reaction, such as anaphylaxis, and the ability to activate the emergency medical system (EMS), as necessary. 

Questions about monoclonal antibody therapy should be directed to: covid19therapeutics@vdh.virginia.gov

Additional Resources

Page Last Updated: December 20, 2021

Hot Topics

The distribution, authorization, and use of monoclonal antibodies in the United States is dynamic and changing rapidly. Recent updates will be posted here.

 

Please include the language below under Hot Topics:

  • December 29, 2021: Due to the current limited supply of COVID-19 monoclonal antibodies and oral antiviral medication, VDH has developed clinical prioritization criteria for the use of these medications. Please note these criteria are recommendations, not mandates or directives. The NIH COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines Panel issued guidance on clinical prioritization on December 23, 2021. While the VDH and NIH criteria are similar, they differ in some respects.
  • December 8, 2021:  FDA grants Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for AstraZeneca monoclonal antibody Evusheld to be used for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PreEP).  See FDA news release and EUA package insert.
  • December 3, 2021:  FDA expands Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) of Bamlanivimab used with Etesevimab ("Bam/Ete") to include pediatric patients. See FDA news release and updated EUA package insert.
    • Key point:  Bam/Ete is now authorized for the outpatient treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 and for postexposure prophylaxis in patients of any age who meet the respective EUA criteria.
  • September 13, 2021: HHS Announces State/territory-coordinated Distribution System for Monoclonal Antibody Therapeutics
    • Key Points: 
      • Monoclonal antibody (mAb) administration sites no longer order directly from AmerisourceBergen.
      • The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) will allocate a specific amount of monoclonal antibody doses to each state/territory each week. This will be determined by the number of new COVID-19 cases and reported mAb usage in the state/territory. 
      • State/Territorial Health Departments will determine where product goes in their jurisdictions.
  • September 13, 2021: HHS Provides Pathway to Expand Access to COVID-19 Therapeutics:  HHS Issues New PREP Act Declaration 

US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) 

Weekly Allocation of Monoclonal Antibodies

Every week, HHS posts the number of doses of monoclonal antibodies distributed to states and territories. To see the most recent allocation, please go to the following link and click on “View Full Chart” under Distribution by State and Territory:

State/Territory-Coordinated Distribution of COVID-19 Monoclonal Antibody Therapeutics 

Overview of Monoclonal Antibodies

What are monoclonal antibodies?

Monoclonal antibodies are a type of COVID-19 therapeutic agent for the treatment of COVID-19. These agents are often created by identifying pathogen-specific antibodies from patients who have recently recovered from an infection or by immunizing mice genetically modified to have a humanized immune system and harvesting effective antibodies from them. They are directed against a specific target on a pathogen and can restore, enhance or mimic the natural immune system’s actions against that pathogen.  Monoclonal antibodies that can bind to and ‘neutralize’ the virus in infected patients can be used as passive immunotherapy to minimize virulence. For COVID-19, currently authorized monoclonal antibodies intended for use in outpatient populations target the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, which the virus utilizes to enter host cells.

Currently, four monoclonal antibodies have FDA emergency use authorization (EUA) for outpatient use (please see the table below for more information):

  • Bamlanivimab and Etesevimab (“Bam/Ete”) - two monoclonal antibodies used together (Eli Lilly)
  • Casirivimab and Imdevimab (REGEN-COV) - two monoclonal antibodies used together (Regeneron)
  • Sotrovimab - a single monoclonal antibody (GlaxoSmithKline)
  • Tixagevimab and Cilgavimab (EVUSHELD) – two monoclonal antibodies used together (AstraZeneca)

A single monoclonal antibody (Tocilizumab, brand name Actemra, Genentech) is available for use for hospitalized patients with COVID-19.

A general review of monoclonal antibodies for providers can be found here and a review of anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies can be found here.  

A quick reference patient’s guide to monoclonal antibodies can be found here.

What are monoclonal antibodies used for?

In the outpatient setting, monoclonal antibodies currently have FDA emergency use authorization for three indications:

  • Treatment of non-hospitalized patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 at high-risk for progression to severe disease. Monoclonal antibodies with this indication include Bam/Ete (bamlanivimab and etesevimab), REGEN-COV (casirivimab and imdevimab), and sotrovimab.
  • Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) against COVID-19 in high-risk patients. Monoclonal antibodies with this indication are Bam/Ete and REGEN-COV.
  • Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against COVID-19 in high-risk patients who meet the EUA criteria for EVUSHELD (tixagevimab and cilgavimab).

Initial data shows that monoclonal antibody treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 reduces the risk of hospitalization and death in high-risk patients. Medication administration is recommended as soon as possible after a positive SARS-CoV-2 viral test, and must be given within 10 days of symptom onset. Patients who are hospitalized because of COVID-19 should not receive anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies, except in clinical trials.     

Which monoclonal antibodies currently have Emergency Use Authorizations for outpatient use?

Monoclonal Antibody  Use(s) Indication, Dose, and Route of Administration
Casirivimab/

Imdevimab (Regeneron)

Treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 in non-hospitalized patients Indication: Recommended for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients (aged 12 years or older and weighing at least 40 kg) with a positive SARS-CoV-2 viral test result and mild to moderate COVID-19 who are at high risk for progressing to severe disease and/or hospitalization as defined by the EUA criteria.* Patients must be observed for at least one hour post dosing. See package insert for complete information about EUA criteria, dosing, and administration.

REGEN-COV package insert (updated 11/17/2021)

Dose/Routes of Administration:

-Casirivimab 600 mg plus imdevimab 600 mg administered by intravenous (IV) infusion

-Casirivimab 600 mg plus imdevimab 600 mg administered by four subcutaneous (SC) injections (2.5 mL per injection)

Post-exposure prophylaxis Indication: Recommended as post-exposure prophylaxis (prevention) for COVID-19 in adults and pediatric patients (12 years of age and older weighing at least 40 kilograms) who are at high risk for progression to severe COVID-19, including hospitalization or death. Casirivimab plus imdevimab is not authorized for pre-exposure prophylaxis. Casirivimab plus imdevimab should only be used as post-exposure prophylaxis for specific patient populations as soon as possible. Casirivimab plus imdevimab is not indicated as a substitute for COVID-19 vaccination. Patients must be observed for at least one hour post dosing. See package insert for complete information about EUA criteria, dosing, and administration.

REGEN-COV package insert (updated 11/17/2021)

Dose/Routes of Administration:

-Casirivimab 600 mg plus imdevimab 600 mg administered by intravenous (IV) infusion

-Casirivimab 600 mg plus imdevimab 600 mg administered by four subcutaneous (SC) injections (2.5 mL per injection)

Bamlanivimab/

Etesevimab* (“Bam/Ete”) (Eli Lilly)

Treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 in non-hospitalized patients of any age Indication: Recommended for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients (pediatric patients of any age can receive Bam/Ete – see EUA package insert for pediatric dosing) with a positive SARS-CoV-2 viral test result and mild to moderate COVID-19 who are at high risk for progressing to severe disease and/or hospitalization as defined by the EUA criteria.* Patients must be observed for at least one hour post dosing. See package insert for complete information about EUA criteria, dosing, and administration.

Bam/Ete package insert (updated 12/13/2021)

Dose/Route of Administration:

Adults: Bamlanivimab 700 mg plus etesevimab 1,400 mg given by IV infusion

See EUA package insert above for pediatric dosing

Post-exposure prophylaxis in patients of any age Indication: Authorized for post-exposure prophylaxis in adults and children who are at high risk for progression to severe COVID-19, including hospitalization or death, and are: not fully vaccinated OR who are not expected to mount an adequate immune response to complete SARS-CoV-2 vaccination (for example, individuals with immunocompromising conditions including those taking immunosuppressive medications) AND

have been exposed to an individual infected with SARS-CoV-2 consistent with close contact criteria per Centers for Disease Control and Prevention OR

who are at high risk of exposure to an individual infected with SARS-CoV-2 because of occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in other individuals in the same institutional setting (for example, nursing homes, prisons, etc.). Medication should  be administered as soon as possible after exposure. Bamlanivimab plus etesevimab are not indicated as a substitute for COVID-19 vaccination.  Patients must be observed for at least one hour post dosing. See package insert for complete information about EUA criteria, dosing, and administration. EUA package insert provides information about dosing for young children.

Not authorized for use in states, territories, and US jurisdictions in which the combined frequency of variants resistant to bamlanivimab and etesevimab exceeds 5%.

Bam/Ete package insert (updated 12/13/2021)

Dose/Route of Administration:

Bamlanivimab 700 mg plus etesevimab 1,400 mg given by IV infusion

Sotrovimab (GlaxoSmithKline) Treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 in non-hospitalized patients Indication: Recommended for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients (aged 12 years or older and weighing at least 40 kg) with a positive SARS-CoV-2 viral test result and mild to moderate COVID-19 who are at high risk for progressing to severe disease and/or hospitalization as defined by the EUA criteria.*  Patients must be observed for at least one hour post dosing. See package insert for complete information about EUA criteria, dosing, and administration.

Sotrovimab package insert (updated 11/3/2021)

Dose/Route of Administration:

500 mg administered by IV infusion over 30 minutes

EVUSHELD (Tixagevimab co-packaged with Cilgavimab)

(AstraZeneca)

For emergency use as pre-exposure prophylaxis for prevention of COVID-19 in adults and pediatric individuals (12 years of age and older weighing at least 40 kg) who meet criteria detailed in the EUA package insert Indication: For emergency use as pre-exposure prophylaxis for prevention of COVID-19 in adults and pediatric individuals (12 years of age and older weighing at least 40 kg):

  • Who are not currently infected with SARS-CoV-2 and who have not had a known recent exposure to an individual infected with SARS-CoV-2 AND

 

Who have moderate to severe immune compromise due to a medical condition or receipt of immunosuppressive medications or treatments and may not mount an adequate immune response to COVID-19 vaccination OR

  • For whom vaccination with any available COVID-19 vaccine, according to the approved or authorized schedule, is not recommended due to a history of severe adverse reaction (e.g., severe allergic reaction) to a COVID-19 vaccine(s) and/or COVID-19 vaccine component(s).

Dose/Route of administration:

150 mg (1.5mL) of tixagevimab and 150 mg (1.5mL) of cilgavimab administered as two separate consecutive intramuscular injections (preferably one injection in each gluteus muscle). 

EVUSHELD EUA package insert (12/8/2021)

*Because clinical outcome data are limited and there are concerns regarding decreased susceptibility of variants, the NIH COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines Panel recommends against the use of bamlanivimab monotherapy. Further information can be accessed here: Statement on Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Monoclonal Antibodies.

Receiving and Administering Monoclonal Antibodies

Where can a person go to receive monoclonal antibody therapy?

Monoclonal antibody therapy is available at the following sites: 

The table below provides an overview of the locations that have received EVUSHELD; a pre-exposure prophylaxis (prevention) therapy. The table will grow as additional locations receive EVUSHELD and be updated as information is available. Patients should talk to their health care provider to determine whether, based on their individual circumstances, they are eligible to receive EVUSHELD.
EVUSHELD is a highly specialized product that may only be prescribed for an individual patient by physicians, advanced practice registered nurses, and physician assistants who are licensed or authorized under state law to prescribe drugs in the therapeutic class. EVUSHELD is not authorized for the following uses in individuals: treatment of COVID-19 or post-exposure prophylaxis of COVID-19 in individuals who have been exposed to someone infected with SARS-CoV-2.

How can providers sign up to order and administer monoclonal antibody therapy?

Medical providers in Virginia who wish to administer monoclonal antibodies must sign up with AmerisourceBergen (the medication distributor) and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Any site administering monoclonal antibodies must report their usage to HHS. Please note the links below which cover these topics. 

What should providers consider when providing monoclonal antibody therapy? 

As monoclonal antibodies are investigational therapies authorized for emergency use, data on adverse effects are limited. Serious adverse events, such as severe allergic reactions, have been reported with monoclonal antibody use, but are uncommon as of this time.  Other adverse effects may include nausea, diarrhea, and skin rashes.  Intravenous infusion-related reactions (such as fever, dyspnea, tachycardia, bradycardia, bronchospasm, and other symptoms/signs) have been reported with monoclonal antibody administration. It has also been reported that some patients had worsening of clinical symptoms and signs after administration of monoclonal antibodies.  It is not clear if this was related to the drug or the underlying COVID-19.   Patients receiving monoclonal antibody treatment must be observed for at least one hour after completing infusion. Monoclonal antibodies may only be administered in settings in which healthcare providers have immediate access to medications to treat a severe infusion reaction, such as anaphylaxis, and the ability to activate the emergency medical system (EMS), as necessary. 

Questions about monoclonal antibody therapy should be directed to: mabs_requests@vdh.virginia.gov

Additional Resources