is the study of the distribution and determinants of disease in a population. Public health epidemiologists monitor the health and illness of a population, investigate the factors that affect the community's health, and recommend interventions to reduce the risk of disease. Epidemiology is practiced in health departments daily and involves principles of surveillance, investigation, laboratory testing, data management and communication.
No one likes getting the flu, but for people at higher risk for complications it can be very serious, even life threatening. Stay healthy and help keep the people closest to you healthy too by getting a seasonal flu vaccine.
What is influenza?
Influenza is commonly referred to as "the flu." It is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses that infect the nose, throat and lungs. The flu can cause mild to severe illness, and at times can lead to death. The best way to prevent the flu is by getting a flu vaccine each year.
What are the symptoms of flu?
Symptoms of flu may include fever (though not everyone with flu will have a fever), cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, body aches, headache, fatigue (tiredness), chills, and sometimes diarrhea and vomiting. Symptoms usually appear 1 to 3 days after exposure. Although most people are ill for less than a week, some people have complications and may need to be hospitalized.
Who gets influenza?
Influenza can infect persons of all ages. The flu can be especially serious for babies, children, pregnant women, adults 65 years and older, people with certain long-term medical conditions (e.g., lung disease, heart disease, cancer, or diabetes), or those with weak immune systems. However, even healthy people can get the flu and should protect themselves by getting the flu vaccine every year.
How is it spread?
The flu virus spreads easily through exposure to discharges from the nose and throat of an infected person. It is often spread by coughing, sneezing or talking. A person might also get the flu by touching a surface or object that has the flu virus on it, and then touching their own mouth, eyes or possibly their nose.
When and for how long is a person able to spread the disease?
Influenza can spread from one person to another beginning one day before symptoms appear through about a week after the onset of symptoms. This means that you may be able to pass on the flu to someone else before you know you are sick, as well as while you are sick.
Who should be vaccinated against influenza?
The single best way to prevent the flu is to get a flu vaccine every season. Everyone age 6 months and older should get a flu vaccine each year.
Who is at high risk for developing flu complications?
The flu is a serious disease, especially for certain age groups and people with certain chronic health conditions, such as:
Other groups at increased risk of flu complications are listed at http://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/disease/high_risk.htm
The flu can lead to complications such as pneumonia and bronchitis and can make chronic health problems worse. To help prevent the spread of the flu, those who live with people in a high risk group and healthcare workers who provide care to high risk patients should also receive an annual influenza shot.
Infants younger than 6 months are too young to get a flu vaccine, but they are at higher risk for complications, hospitalization and death from the flu. Therefore, it is especially important that family members and other people who care for young infants get vaccinated to help ensure that they don’t spread the infection to them.
What are other steps that can be taken to prevent the spread of influenza?
You can take three important steps to fight the flu: 1) Get vaccinated. 2) Stop the spread of flu and other germs by covering your mouth and nose with a tissue when coughing or sneezing, washing your hands often to help protect yourself from germs, avoiding touching your eyes, nose or mouth, staying home from work, school, and other activities when you are sick, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick. 3) Use antiviral drugs if your doctor recommends them.
Communicable Disease Fax Line
Louise Lockett, MPH
Communicable Disease Nurse
Catherine Bailey, RN
Angelia Brennan, RN
Office of Epidemiology
Home page for VDH’s Office of Epidemiology. It will connect you with the Divisions of Surveillance and Investigation, Disease Prevention, Environmental Epidemiology, Immunization and Radiological Health.
Disease Regulation Information
Contains the complete regulations for disease reporting and control for Virginia. You will also find the reportable disease list, conditions reportable by laboratories, outbreak reporting requirements and the reporting form (Epi-1).
Communicable Disease Chart for Schools
Direct link to the PDF. Make sure to review the footnotes at the bottom of this document. Last revised November 1st, 2011. More information can be found in the VDOE School Health Guidelines (located at the bottom of the page).
Nursing Facility Regulations
Contains a line list of guidelines from VDH’s Office of Licensure and Certification. The Rules and Regulations for the Licensure of Nursing Facilities in Virginia can be found here.
VDSS Assisted Living Facility Regulations
Contains information on regulations, Code of Virginia, application process, guidelines, forms, training and more.
EPA Registered Disinfectants
Contains listings of EPA registered antimicrobial products that are effective against HIV, Hepatitis B and C, Norovirus, MRSA and more.
FDA Bad Bug Book
Provides basic facts regarding foodborne pathogens and natural toxins
CDC Health Alert Network
Provides recent and archived health alerts, advisories, updates and informational messages regarding vital health information.